FLORENCE FULTON HOBSON 1881-1978

2-florence-about-1965 Florence Fulton Hobson fue la tercera mujer en obtener la licencia por la RIBA y la primera mujer arquitecta en Irlanda.

Florence Fulton Hobson creció en Belfast, Irlanda del Norte. Su familia eran cuáqueros y su madre, la inglesa Mary Ann Bulmer Hobson (1856-1947), fue un activa sufragista  y arqueóloga de la afición. En 1907 y 1909 publicó algunos artículos que fueron ilustrados con los dibujos por su hija.[1] El hermano menor de Florence, John Bulmer Hobson (1883-1969), fue un conocido nacionalista irlandés y tuvo un papel fundamental en los acontecimientos políticos en Irlanda antes del Alzamiento de Pascua en 1916.

Después de asistir a la Escuela de Artes en Belfast Fulton Hobson fue un aprendiz en la oficina de James John Phillips (1841 / 42-1935) y su hijo James St John Phillips (1870-1935) entre los años  1899 a 1903.[2] En 1904 se trasladó a Londres, donde trabajó como asistente de Guy Dawber[3] (1861-1938) y James Glen Sivewright Gibson[4] (1861-1951). En ésta última, estuvo involucrada en el trabajo en el ayuntamiento neobarroco de Walsall, cerca de Birmingham.[5] Fulton Hobson regresó a Belfast y se convirtió en ayudante temporal en el Departamento de Agrimensura de la Municipalidad de Belfast[6] antes de comenzar a trabajar en la Comisión Real de Salud y Vivienda también del mismo municipio desde 1907 hasta 1921 . En 1911 fue la tercera mujer con licencia del Royal Institute of British Architects (RIBA) y la primera en Irlanda. Algunas de las experiencias, prejuicios y obstáculos que encontró en la práctica arquitectónica se discuten en su artículo de 1911 “Arquitectura como profesión”[7].

Hasta 1911 estuvo involucrada en la construcción de diez alojamientos para trabajadores en Portadown (1905-06), una Iglesia Presbiteriana en la calle Grosvenor en Belfast (1905), una estación de desinfección (1907) y un matadero público (1909) que fue diseñado por el arquitecto Henry Albert Cutler[8] (1861-1952). Además en 1913 dio la charla pública “Urbanismo y su Relación con la Salud Pública” en la Biblioteca Pública de Belfast  sobre la ética de la planificación urbana, la legislación moderna y la vivienda social.

Poco se sabe sobre su carrera posterior a su colaboración en la Municipalidad de Belfast y su práctica privada. Entre estas últimas se encontraban las remodelaciones de la tienda de música de McCullough en la calle Howard en Belfast (1913) y en Glendun Logde en Cushendun (1914) residencia Ada McNeill, una amiga de la familia. En 1914-15 ella construyó su primera casa en Carnalea cerca de Belfast y en 1920-21 se agregaron dos casas más en el mismo sitio. Después de 1921 construyó otra casa en Carnalea y un bungalow en Killiney cerca de Dublin.[9]

La única publicación que ilustró y discutió las casas de Fulton Hobson fue el artículo de 1927 “Primeras Mujeres Arquitectas de Irlanda”. Presentaba imágenes de dos de las casas en Carnalea y una planta.

En 1930 dirigió la tienda de artesanías “Dunluce Handcrafts” en Bushmills, Co. Antrim. Se retiró en 1937.

En 1947 se casó con William Forbes Patterson, 12 años menor que ella, y parece que vivieron en Londres hasta los años sesenta. Falleció en 1978 a los 97 años en Carnalea.

Versión original en inglés:

Florence Fulton Hobson was the third woman who was licensed by the RIBA and the first professional women architect in Ireland.

Florence Fulton Hobson grew up in Belfast, Northern Ireland [Fig. 1]. Her family were Quakers and her English mother Mary Ann Bulmer Hobson (1856-1947) was an active Suffragette and a hobby archaeologist. In 1907 and 1909 she published articles that were illustrated with drawings by her daughter [Fig. 2].[1] Florence’ s younger brother John Bulmer Hobson (1883-1969) was a well-known Irish Nationalist and had a pivotal role in the political developments in Ireland before the Easter Rising in 1916.

After attending the School of Arts in Belfast Fulton Hobson was an apprentice in the practice of James John Phillips (1841/42-1935) and his son James St John Phillips (1870-1935) from 1899 to 1903.[2] In 1904 she moved to London where she worked as an assistant to Guy Dawber[3] (1861-1938) and James Glen Sivewright Gibson[4](1861-1951). At the latter practice, she was involved with the work on the neo-baroque Town Hall in Walsall near Birmingham.[5] Fulton Hobson returned to Belfast and became a temporary assistant in the Surveyor’ s Department at the Belfast Corporation[6] before commencing employment from 1907 to 1921 at the Royal Commission of Health and Housing also at the Belfast Corporation. In 1911 she was the third woman who was licensed by the Royal Institute of British Architects (RIBA) and the first one in Ireland. Some of the experiences, prejudices and obstacles that she encountered in architectural practice are discussed in her 1911 article “Architecture as a Profession”[7].

Up until 1911 she was involved with the erection of ten workmen’s dwellings in Portadown (1905-06), a Presbyterian Church on Grosvenor Road in Belfast (1905), a disinfecting station (1907), and a public abattoir (1909) that was designed by the architect Henry Albert Cutler[8] (1861-1952). Additionally, she gave the public talk “Town Planning and its Relation to Public Health” at the Belfast Public Library in 1913 on the ethics of town planning, modern legislation, and social housing.

Little is known about her later career at the Belfast Corporation and her private practice. Among the latter were the alterations to McCullough’ s music shop on Howard Street in Belfast (1913) and to the c1810 Glendun Lodge in Cushendun (1914) for Ada McNeill, a friend of the family. In 1914-15 she built her first house in Carnalea near Belfast and in 1920-21 two more houses were added on the same site . After 1921 she built a further house in Carnalea and a bungalow in Killiney near Dublin.[9]

The only publication that illustrated and discussed Fulton Hobson’ s houses was the 1927 article “Ireland’ s First Women Architect”. It featured images of two of the houses in Carnalea and a plan.

Around 1930 she ran the craft shop “Dunluce Handcrafts” in Bushmills, Co. Antrim and retired in 1937 but in 1947 married the 12-years younger William Forbes Patterson and they appear to have lived in London until the 1960s. By the time of her death at age 97 in 1978 she lived again in Carnalea.

References
[1] Mary Hobson and Florence Hobson, “Some Rude Stone Monuments in Antrim and Down,” Ulster Journal of Archaeology 13:2 (May 1907): 84-89 and Mary Hobson, “Some Ulster Souterrains” Royal Anthropological Journal 39 (January-June, 1909): 220-227. Mary Ann Bulmer Hobson was active in the Belfast Naturalists’ Field Club and is frequently mentioned in the Annual reports between 1904 and 1913.
Marnie Hay, Bulmer Hobson and the Nationalist Movement in Twentieth-Century Ireland (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 2009), Kate Newmann, “Bulmer Hobson (1883-1963): Writer and Revolutionary” Dictionary of Ulster Biography (accessed January 1st, 2017).
[2]“RIBA Nomination File ‘Florence Patterson’. Candidate’s Separate Statement, December 3rd, 1910,” in The Royal Institute of British Architects, Licentiate Florence Fulton Hobson Student RIBA, London November 29th, 1910. Information on her work up to 1921: Florence Fulton Hobson, “Hand-written Curriculum Vitae”, not dated (c. 1921). This manuscript is in the collection of Fulton Hobson’s family.
[3]“(Sir) Edward Guy Dawber,” Dictionary of Scottish Architects. Architect Biography Report,  (accessed, August 15th, 2016).
[4]“Glen Sivewright Gibson,” Dictionary of Scottish Architects. Architect Biography Report,  (accessed, August 15th, 2016).
“RIBA Nomination File ‘Florence Patterson’.”
[6]Fulton Hobson, “Hand-written Curriculum Vitae”.
[7]Anonymous (Florence Fulton Hobson), “Architecture as a Profession,” The Queen: The Lady’s Newspaper 3391:80 (December 23rd, 1911). See also: “Public Work and Women’s Employment,” The Queen: The Lady’s Newspaper (February 17th, 1912): 284.
[8]“Cutler, Henry Albert,” Dictionary of Irish Architects 1720-1940,  (accessed August 10th, 2016).
[9]Fulton Hobson, “Hand-written Curriculum Vitae.” This CV does not mention Ada McNeill but a brochure published by the Cushendun and District Development Association explains that McNeill owned Glendun Lodge. The Cushendun and District Development Association, The Ring Walk: Cushendun. Chapter 5. Glendun Lodge, (accessed January 3rd, 2017).
More information:
“Hobson, Florence Fulton,” Dictionary of Irish Architects 1720-1940,  and Celebrating Belfast women: A city guide through women’s eyes (Belfast: Women’s Resource & Development Agency, no date): 22, (both accessed August 27th, 2016), Cathy Hayes, “Hobson, Florence Fulton” Dictionary of Irish Biography (accessed December 11th, 2016) and Ryan McBride, “Houses designed by women, for women,” (BA Hons thesis, Ulster University, 2015), 13-19.
Sidorova, Milota
Two Historians on Two First Women Architects. Florence Fulton Hobson (IE), Elena Luzzatto Valentini (IT), 2016
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